Several characters or character classes inside square brackets `[…]`

mean to “search for any character among given”.

## Sets

For instance, `[eao]`

means any of the 3 characters: `'a'`

, `'e'`

, or `'o'`

.

That’s called a *set*. Sets can be used in a regexp along with regular characters:

```
// find [t or m], and then "op"
alert( "Mop top".match(/[tm]op/gi) ); // "Mop", "top"
```

Please note that although there are multiple characters in the set, they correspond to exactly one character in the match.

So the example below gives no matches:

```
// find "V", then [o or i], then "la"
alert( "Voila".match(/V[oi]la/) ); // null, no matches
```

The pattern searches for:

`V`

,- then
*one*of the letters`[oi]`

, - then
`la`

.

So there would be a match for `Vola`

or `Vila`

.

## Ranges

Square brackets may also contain *character ranges*.

For instance, `[a-z]`

is a character in range from `a`

to `z`

, and `[0-5]`

is a digit from `0`

to `5`

.

In the example below we’re searching for `"x"`

followed by two digits or letters from `A`

to `F`

:

`alert( "Exception 0xAF".match(/x[0-9A-F][0-9A-F]/g) ); // xAF`

Here `[0-9A-F]`

has two ranges: it searches for a character that is either a digit from `0`

to `9`

or a letter from `A`

to `F`

.

If we’d like to look for lowercase letters as well, we can add the range `a-f`

: `[0-9A-Fa-f]`

. Or add the flag `i`

.

We can also use character classes inside `[…]`

.

For instance, if we’d like to look for a wordly character `\w`

or a hyphen `-`

, then the set is `[\w-]`

.

Combining multiple classes is also possible, e.g. `[\s\d]`

means “a space character or a digit”.

For instance:

**\d**– is the same as`[0-9]`

,**\w**– is the same as`[a-zA-Z0-9_]`

,**\s**– is the same as`[\t\n\v\f\r ]`

, plus few other rare unicode space characters.

### Example: multi-language \w

As the character class `\w`

is a shorthand for `[a-zA-Z0-9_]`

, it can’t find Chinese hieroglyphs, Cyrillic letters, etc.

We can write a more universal pattern, that looks for wordly characters in any language. That’s easy with unicode properties: `[\p{Alpha}\p{M}\p{Nd}\p{Pc}\p{Join_C}]`

.

Let’s decipher it. Similar to `\w`

, we’re making a set of our own that includes characters with following unicode properties:

`Alphabetic`

(`Alpha`

) – for letters,`Mark`

(`M`

) – for accents,`Decimal_Number`

(`Nd`

) – for digits,`Connector_Punctuation`

(`Pc`

) – for the underscore`'_'`

and similar characters,`Join_Control`

(`Join_C`

) – two special codes`200c`

and`200d`

, used in ligatures, e.g. in Arabic.

An example of use:

```
let regexp = /[\p{Alpha}\p{M}\p{Nd}\p{Pc}\p{Join_C}]/gu;
let str = `Hi 你好 12`;
// finds all letters and digits:
alert( str.match(regexp) ); // H,i,你,好,1,2
```

Of course, we can edit this pattern: add unicode properties or remove them. Unicode properties are covered in more details in the article Unicode: flag "u" and class \p{...}.

Unicode properties `p{…}`

are not yet implemented in Edge and Firefox. If we really need them, we can use library XRegExp.

Or just use ranges of characters in a language that interests us, e.g. `[а-я]`

for Cyrillic letters.

## Excluding ranges

Besides normal ranges, there are “excluding” ranges that look like `[^…]`

.

They are denoted by a caret character `^`

at the start and match any character *except the given ones*.

For instance:

`[^aeyo]`

– any character except`'a'`

,`'e'`

,`'y'`

or`'o'`

.`[^0-9]`

– any character except a digit, the same as`\D`

.`[^\s]`

– any non-space character, same as`\S`

.

The example below looks for any characters except letters, digits and spaces:

`alert( "alice15@gmail.com".match(/[^\d\sA-Z]/gi) ); // @ and .`

## Escaping in […]

Usually when we want to find exactly a special character, we need to escape it like `\.`

. And if we need a backslash, then we use `\\`

, and so on.

In square brackets we can use the vast majority of special characters without escaping:

- Symbols
`. + ( )`

never need escaping. - A hyphen
`-`

is not escaped in the beginning or the end (where it does not define a range). - A caret
`^`

is only escaped in the beginning (where it means exclusion). - The closing square bracket
`]`

is always escaped (if we need to look for that symbol).

In other words, all special characters are allowed without escaping, except when they mean something for square brackets.

A dot `.`

inside square brackets means just a dot. The pattern `[.,]`

would look for one of characters: either a dot or a comma.

In the example below the regexp `[-().^+]`

looks for one of the characters `-().^+`

:

```
// No need to escape
let regexp = /[-().^+]/g;
alert( "1 + 2 - 3".match(regexp) ); // Matches +, -
```

…But if you decide to escape them “just in case”, then there would be no harm:

```
// Escaped everything
let regexp = /[\-\(\)\.\^\+]/g;
alert( "1 + 2 - 3".match(regexp) ); // also works: +, -
```

## Ranges and flag “u”

If there are surrogate pairs in the set, flag `u`

is required for them to work correctly.

For instance, let’s look for `[𝒳𝒴]`

in the string `𝒳`

:

```
alert( '𝒳'.match(/[𝒳𝒴]/) ); // shows a strange character, like [?]
// (the search was performed incorrectly, half-character returned)
```

The result is incorrect, because by default regular expressions “don’t know” about surrogate pairs.

The regular expression engine thinks that `[𝒳𝒴]`

– are not two, but four characters:

- left half of
`𝒳`

`(1)`

, - right half of
`𝒳`

`(2)`

, - left half of
`𝒴`

`(3)`

, - right half of
`𝒴`

`(4)`

.

We can see their codes like this:

```
for(let i=0; i<'𝒳𝒴'.length; i++) {
alert('𝒳𝒴'.charCodeAt(i)); // 55349, 56499, 55349, 56500
};
```

So, the example above finds and shows the left half of `𝒳`

.

If we add flag `u`

, then the behavior will be correct:

`alert( '𝒳'.match(/[𝒳𝒴]/u) ); // 𝒳`

The similar situation occurs when looking for a range, such as `[𝒳-𝒴]`

.

If we forget to add flag `u`

, there will be an error:

`'𝒳'.match(/[𝒳-𝒴]/); // Error: Invalid regular expression`

The reason is that without flag `u`

surrogate pairs are perceived as two characters, so `[𝒳-𝒴]`

is interpreted as `[<55349><56499>-<55349><56500>]`

(every surrogate pair is replaced with its codes). Now it’s easy to see that the range `56499-55349`

is invalid: its starting code `56499`

is greater than the end `55349`

. That’s the formal reason for the error.

With the flag `u`

the pattern works correctly:

```
// look for characters from 𝒳 to 𝒵
alert( '𝒴'.match(/[𝒳-𝒵]/u) ); // 𝒴
```

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